Understanding the 8 Parts of Speech: Definitions and Examples



feature-parts-of-speech-sentence-map

If you’re trying to learn the grammatical rules of English, you’ve probably been asked to learn the parts of speech. But what are parts of speech and how many are there? How do you know which words are classified in each part of speech?

The answers to these questions can be a bit complicated—English is a difficult language to learn and understand. Don’t fret, though! We’re going to answer each of these questions for you with a full guide to the parts of speech that explains the following:

  • What the parts of speech are, including a comprehensive parts of speech list
  • Parts of speech definitions for the individual parts of speech. (If you’re looking for information on a specific part of speech, you can search for it by pressing Command + F, then typing in the part of speech you’re interested in.)
  • Parts of speech examples
  • A ten question quiz covering parts of speech definitions and parts of speech examples

We’ve got a lot to cover, so let’s begin!



Feature Image: (Gavina S /

Wikimedia Commons)


body-woman-question-marks


What Are Parts of Speech?


The parts of speech definitions in English can vary, but here’s a widely accepted one:

a part of speech is a category of words that serve a similar grammatical purpose in sentences.

To make that definition even simpler,

a part of speech is just a category for similar types of words

. All of the types of words included under a single part of speech function in similar ways when they’re used properly in sentences.

In the English language, it’s commonly accepted that there are 8 parts of speech:

nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, conjunctions, interjections, and prepositions.

Each of these categories plays a different role in communicating meaning in the English language. Each of the eight parts of speech—which we might also call the “main classes” of speech—also have

subclasses.

In other words,

we can think of each of the eight parts of speech as being general categories for different types within their part of speech

. There are different types of nouns, different types of verbs, different types of adjectives, adverbs, pronouns…you get the idea.

And that’s an overview of what a part of speech is! Next, we’ll explain each of the 8 parts of speech—definitions and examples included for each category.


body-people-drinking-coffee-with-dog


There are tons of nouns in this picture. Can you find them all?


#1: Nouns



Nouns are a class of words that refer, generally, to people and living creatures, objects, events, ideas, states of being, places, and actions.

You’ve probably heard English nouns referred to as “persons, places, or things.” That definition is a little simplistic, though—while nouns

do

include people, places, and things, “things” is kind of a vague term.

I

t’s important to recognize that “things” can include physical things—like objects or belongings—and nonphysical, abstract things—like ideas, states of existence, and actions.

Since there are many different types of nouns, we’ll include several examples of nouns used in a sentence while we break down the subclasses of nouns next!


Subclasses of Nouns, Including Examples

As an open class of words, the category of “nouns” has

a lot

of subclasses.

The most common and important subclasses of nouns are common nouns, proper nouns, concrete nouns, abstract nouns, collective nouns, and count and mass nouns.

Let’s break down each of these subclasses!


Common Nouns and Proper Nouns


Common nouns are generic nouns—they don’t name specific items.

They refer to people (the man, the woman), living creatures (cat, bird), objects (pen, computer, car), events (party, work), ideas (culture, freedom), states of being (beauty, integrity), and places (home, neighborhood, country) in a general way.

Proper nouns are sort of the counterpart to common nouns.

Proper nouns refer to specific people, places, events, or ideas.

Names are the most obvious example of proper nouns, like in these two examples:

Common noun:

What



state



are you from?

Proper noun:

I’m from



Arizona



.

Whereas “state” is a common noun, Arizona is a proper noun since it refers to a

specific

state. Whereas “the election” is a common noun, “Election Day” is a proper noun.

Another way to pick out proper nouns: the first letter is often capitalized.

If you’d capitalize the word in a sentence, it’s almost always a proper noun.


Concrete Nouns and Abstract Nouns


Concrete nouns are nouns that can be identified through the five senses.

Concrete nouns include people, living creatures, objects, and places, since these things can be sensed in the physical world. In contrast to concrete nouns,

abstract nouns are nouns that identify ideas, qualities, concepts, experiences, or states of being.

Abstract nouns cannot be detected by the five senses. Here’s an example of concrete and abstract nouns used in a sentence:

Concrete noun:

Could you please fix the

weedeater

and mow the

lawn

?

Abstract noun:

Aliyah was delighted to have the

freedom

to enjoy the art show in

peace

.

See the difference? A

weedeater

and

the lawn

are physical objects or things, and

freedom

and

peace

are not physical objects, though they’re “things” people experience! Despite those differences, they all count as nouns.


Collective Nouns, Count Nouns, and Mass Nouns

Nouns are often categorized based on number and amount.

Collective nouns are nouns that refer to a group of something—often groups of people or a type of animal.


Team

,

crowd

, and

herd

are all examples of collective nouns.


Count nouns are nouns that can appear in the singular or plural form, can be modified by numbers, and can be described by quantifying determiners

(e.g. many, most, more, several). For example, “bug” is a count noun. It can occur in singular form if you say, “There is

a bug

in the kitchen,” but it can also occur in the plural form if you say, “There are

many bugs

in the kitchen.” (In the case of the latter, you’d call an exterminator…which is an example of a common noun!) Any noun that can accurately occur in one of these singular or plural forms is a count noun.

Mass nouns are another type of noun that involve numbers and amount.

Mass nouns are nouns that usually can’t be pluralized, counted, or quantified and still make sense grammatically.

“Charisma” is an example of a mass noun (and an abstract noun!). For example, you could say, “They’ve got

charisma,

” which doesn’t imply a specific amount. You

couldn’t

say, “They’ve got

six charismas,

” or, “They’ve got

several charismas

.” It just doesn’t make sense!


body-people-running-relay-race


Verbs are all about action…just like these runners.


#2: Verbs



A verb is a part of speech that, when used in a sentence, communicates an action, an occurrence, or a state of being

. In sentences, verbs are the most important part of the predicate, which explains or describes what the subject of the sentence is doing or how they are being. And, guess what?


All



sentences contain verbs!

There are

many

words in the English language that are classified as verbs. A few common verbs include the words

run, sing, cook, talk,

and

clean.

These words are all verbs because they communicate an

action

performed by a living being. We’ll look at more specific examples of verbs as we discuss the subclasses of verbs next!


Subclasses of Verbs, Including Examples

Like nouns, verbs have several subclasses.

The subclasses of verbs include copular or linking verbs, intransitive verbs, transitive verbs, and ditransitive or double transitive verbs.

Let’s dive into these subclasses of verbs!


Copular or Linking Verbs


Copular verbs, or linking verbs, are verbs that link a subject with its complement in a sentence.

The most familiar linking verb is probably

be.

Here’s a list of other common copular verbs in English:

act, be, become, feel, grow, seem, smell,

and

taste.

So how do copular verbs work? Well, in a sentence, if we said, “Michi


is


,” and left it at that, it wouldn’t make any sense. “Michi,” the subject, needs to be connected to a complement by the copular verb “is.” Instead, we could say, “Michi


is


leaving.” In that instance,

is

links the subject of the sentence to its complement.


Transitive Verbs, Intransitive Verbs, and Ditransitive Verbs


Transitive verbs are verbs that affect or act upon an object.

When unattached to an object in a sentence, a transitive verb does not make sense. Here’s an example of a transitive verb attached to (and appearing before) an object in a sentence:


Please



take the clothes



to the dry cleaners.

In this example,

“take” is a transitive verb because it requires an object—”the clothes”—to make sense.

“The clothes” are the objects being taken. “Please take” wouldn’t make sense by itself, would it? That’s because the transitive verb “take,” like all transitive verbs, transfers its action onto another being or object.

Conversely,

intransitive verbs



don’t



require an object to act upon in order to make sense in a sentence.

These verbs make sense all on their own! For instance, “They

ran

,” “We

arrived

,” and, “The car

stopped

” are all examples of sentences that contain intransitive verbs.

Finally, ditransitive verbs, or double transitive verbs, are a bit more complicated.

Ditransitive verbs are verbs that are followed by



two



objects in a sentence

. One of the objects has the action of the ditransitive verb done to it, and the

other

object has the action of the ditransitive verb directed towards it. Here’s an example of what that means in a sentence:


I



cooked



Nathan a meal.

In this example, “cooked” is a ditransitive verb because it modifies two objects:

Nathan

and

meal

. The meal has the action of “cooked” done to it, and “Nathan” has the action of the verb directed towards him.


body-rainbow-colored-chalk


Adjectives are descriptors that help us better understand a sentence. A common adjective type is color.


#3: Adjectives


Here’s the simplest definition of adjectives:

adjectives are words that describe other words

. Specifically, adjectives modify nouns and noun phrases. In sentences, adjectives appear before nouns and pronouns (they have to appear before the words they describe!).


Adjectives give more detail to nouns and pronouns by describing how a noun looks, smells, tastes, sounds, or feels, or its state of being or existence.

. For example, you could say, “The girl rode her bike.” That sentence doesn’t have any adjectives in it, but you could add an adjective before both of the nouns in the sentence—”girl” and “bike”—to give more detail to the sentence. It might read like this: “The

young

girl rode her

red

bike.”


You can pick out adjectives in a sentence by asking the following questions:

  • Which one?
  • What kind?
  • How many?
  • Whose’s?

We’ll look at more examples of adjectives as we explore the subclasses of adjectives next!


Subclasses of Adjectives, Including Examples

Subclasses of adjectives include

adjective phrases, comparative adjectives, superlative adjectives, and determiners

(which include articles, possessive adjectives, and demonstratives).


Adjective Phrases


An adjective phrase is a group of words that describe a noun or noun phrase in a sentence.

Adjective phrases can appear before the noun or noun phrase in a sentence, like in this example:

The


extremely fragile


vase somehow did not break during the move.

In this case,

extremely fragile

describes the vase. On the other hand, adjective phrases can appear after the noun or noun phrase in a sentence as well:

The museum was


somewhat boring.

Again, the phrase

somewhat boring

describes the museum. The takeaway is this: adjective phrases describe the subject of a sentence with greater detail than an individual adjective.


Comparative Adjectives and Superlative Adjectives


Comparative adjectives are used in sentences where two nouns are compared.

They function to compare the differences between the two nouns that they modify. In sentences, comparative adjectives often appear in this pattern and typically end with

-er.

If we were to describe how comparative adjectives function as a formula, it might look something like this:


Noun (subject) + verb + comparative adjective + than + noun (object).

Here’s an example of how a comparative adjective would work in that type of sentence:


The horse was

faster

than the dog.

The adjective

faster

compares the speed of the horse to the speed of the dog. Other common comparative adjectives include words that compare distance (

higher, lower, farther

), age (

younger, older

), size and dimensions (

bigger, smaller, wider, taller, shorter

), and quality or feeling (

better, cleaner, happier, angrier

).


Superlative adjectives are adjectives that describe the extremes of a quality that applies to a subject being compared to a group of objects

. Put more simply, superlative adjectives help show how extreme something is. In sentences, superlative adjectives usually appear in this structure and end in

-est

:


Noun (subject) + verb + the + superlative adjective + noun (object).

Here’s an example of a superlative adjective that appears in that type of sentence:


Their story was the

funniest

story.

In this example, the subject—

story

—is being compared to a group of objects—other stories. The superlative adjective “funniest” implies that this particular story is the funniest out of all the stories ever, period. Other common superlative adjectives are

best, worst, craziest,

and

happiest…

though there are many more than that!

It’s also important to know that you can often omit the object from the end of the sentence when using superlative adjectives, like this: “Their story was the


funniest.”


We still know that “their story” is being compared to other stories without the object at the end of the sentence.


Determiners

The last subclass of adjectives we want to look at are determiners.

Determiners are words that determine what kind of reference a noun or noun phrase makes.

These words are placed in front of nouns to make it clear what the noun is referring to. Determiners are an example of a part of speech subclass that contains

a lot

of subclasses of its own. Here is a list of the different types of determiners:


  • Definite article:

    the

  • Indefinite articles

    : a, an

  • Demonstratives:

    this, that, these, those

  • Pronouns and possessive determiners:

    my, your, his, her, its, our, their

  • Quantifiers

    : a little, a few, many, much, most, some, any, enough

  • Numbers:

    one, twenty, fifty

  • Distributives:

    all, both, half, either, neither, each, every

  • Difference words

    : other, another

  • Pre-determiners:

    such, what, rather, quite

Here are some examples of how determiners can be used in sentences:

Definite article:

Get in



the



car.

Demonstrative:

Could you hand me



that



magazine?

Possessive determiner:

Please put away



your



clothes.

Distributive:

He ate



all



of the pie.


Though some of the words above might not



seem



descriptive, they actually



do



describe the specificity and definiteness, relationship, and quantity or amount of a noun or noun phrase.

For example, the definite article “the” (a type of determiner) indicates that a noun refers to a

specific

thing or entity. The indefinite article “an,” on the other hand, indicates that a noun refers to a

nonspecific

entity.

One quick note, since English is always more complicated than it seems: while articles are most commonly classified as adjectives, they can also function as adverbs in specific situations, too. Not only that, some people are taught that determiners are their own part of speech…which means that some people are taught there are 9 parts of speech instead of 8!

It can be a little confusing, which is why we have a whole article explaining

how articles function as a part of speech to help clear things up

.


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Adverbs can be used to answer questions like “when?” and “how long?”


#4 Adverbs


Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives (including determiners), clauses, prepositions, and sentences.

Adverbs typically answer the questions

how?, in what way?, when?, where?,

and

to what extent?

In answering these questions,

adverbs function to express frequency, degree, manner, time, place, and level of certainty

. Adverbs can answer these questions in the form of single words, or in the form of adverbial phrases or adverbial clauses.

Adverbs are commonly known for being words that end in

-ly,

but there’s actually a bit more to adverbs than that, which we’ll dive into while we look at the subclasses of adverbs!


Subclasses Of Adverbs, Including Examples

There are many types of adverbs, but

the main subclasses we’ll look at are conjunctive adverbs, and adverbs of place, time, manner, degree, and frequency.


Conjunctive Adverbs

Conjunctive adverbs look like coordinating conjunctions (which we’ll talk about later!), but they are actually their own category:

conjunctive adverbs are words that connect independent clauses into a single sentence

. These adverbs appear after a semicolon and before a comma in sentences, like in these two examples:


She was exhausted;



nevertheless



, she went for a five mile run.


They didn’t call;



instead



, they texted.

Though conjunctive adverbs are frequently used to create shorter sentences using a semicolon and comma, they can also appear at the beginning of sentences, like this:


He chopped the vegetables.



Meanwhile,



I boiled the pasta.

One thing to keep in mind is that conjunctive adverbs come with a comma. When you use them, be sure to include a comma afterward!

There are

a lot

of conjunctive adverbs, but some common ones include

also, anyway, besides, finally, further, however, indeed, instead, meanwhile, nevertheless, next, nonetheless, now, otherwise, similarly, then, therefore,

and

thus.


Adverbs of Place, Time, Manner, Degree, and Frequency


There are also adverbs of place, time, manner, degree, and frequency.

Each of these types of adverbs express a different kind of meaning.


Adverbs of place express where an action is done or where an event occurs.

These are used after the verb, direct object, or at the end of a sentence. A sentence like “She walked outside to watch the sunset” uses

outside

as an adverb of place.


Adverbs of time explain when something happens.

These adverbs are used at the beginning or at the end of sentences. In a sentence like “The game should be over soon,”

soon

functions as an adverb of time.


Adverbs of manner describe the way in which something is done

or how something happens.

These

are the adverbs that usually end in the familiar

-ly.

If we were to write “She quickly finished her homework,”

quickly

is an adverb of manner.


Adverbs of degree tell us the extent to which something happens

or occurs. If we were to say “The play was quite interesting,”

quite

tells us the extent of how interesting the play was. Thus,

quite

is an adverb of degree.

Finally,

adverbs of frequency express how often something happens

. In a sentence like “They never know what to do with themselves,”

never

is an adverb of frequency.

Five subclasses of adverbs is a lot, so we’ve organized the words that fall under each category in a nifty table for you here:


Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of Time

Adverbs of Manner

Adverbs of Degree

Adverbs of Frequency
Above
Afterwards
Badly
Almost
Again
Below
Already
Happily
Much
Always
Here
Always
Sadly
Nearly
Ever
Outside
Immediately
Slowly
Quite
Frequently
Over there
Last (month, week, year)
Quickly
Really
Generally
There
Now
Well
So
Hardly ever
Under
Soon
Hard
Too
Nearly
Upstairs
Then
Fast
Very
Never
Yesterday
Occasionally

It’s important to know about these subclasses of adverbs because many of them don’t follow the old adage that adverbs end in

-ly.


body-pronoun-chart


Here’s a helpful list of pronouns.

(Attanata /

Flickr

)


#5: Pronouns


Pronouns are words that can be substituted for a noun or noun phrase in a sentence

. Pronouns function to make sentences less clunky by allowing people to avoid repeating nouns over and over. For example, if you were telling someone a story about your friend Destiny, you wouldn’t keep repeating their name over and over again every time you referred to them. Instead, you’d use a pronoun—like they or them—to refer to Destiny throughout the story.

Pronouns are typically short words, often only two or three letters long.

The most familiar pronouns in the English language are they, she, and he.

But these aren’t the only pronouns. There are many more pronouns in English that fall under different subclasses!


Subclasses of Pronouns, Including Examples

There are

many

subclasses of pronouns, but the most commonly used subclasses are

personal pronouns, possessive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, indefinite pronouns, and interrogative pronouns.


Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns are probably the most familiar type of pronoun.

Personal pronouns include



I, me, you, she, her, him, he, we, us, they,



and



them.


These are called personal pronouns because they refer to a person! Personal pronouns can replace specific nouns in sentences, like a person’s name, or refer to specific groups of people, like in these examples:


Did you see Gia pole vault at the track meet?



Her



form was incredible!


The Cycling Club is meeting up at six.



They



said



they



would be at the park.

In both of the examples above, a pronoun stands in for a proper noun to avoid repetitiveness.

Her

replaces

Gia

in the first example, and

they

replaces

the Cycling Club

in the second example.

(It’s also worth noting that personal pronouns are one of the easiest ways to determine what

point of view

a writer is using.)


Possessive Pronouns


Possessive pronouns are used to indicate that something belongs to or is the possession of someone.

The possessive pronouns fall into two categories: limiting and absolute. In a sentence, absolute possessive pronouns can be substituted for the thing that belongs to a person, and limiting pronouns cannot.


The limiting pronouns are



my, your, its, his, her, our, their,



and



whose,


and

the absolute pronouns are



mine, yours, his, hers, ours,



and



theirs



.

Here are examples of a limiting possessive pronoun and absolute possessive pronoun used in a sentence:

Limiting possessive pronoun:


Juan



is fixing



his



car.

In the example above, the car belongs to Juan, and

his

is the limiting possessive pronoun that shows the car belongs to Juan. Now, here’s an example of an absolute pronoun in a sentence:

Absolute possessive pronoun:

Did you buy your



tickets



?



We



already bought



ours



.

In this example, the tickets belong to whoever

we

is, and in the second sentence,

ours

is the absolute possessive pronoun standing in for the thing that “we” possess—the tickets.


Demonstrative Pronouns, Interrogative Pronouns, and Indefinite Pronouns


Demonstrative pronouns include the words



that, this, these,



and



those.


These pronouns

stand in for a noun or noun phrase that has already been mentioned in a sentence or conversation.


This

and

these

are typically used to refer to objects or entities that are nearby distance-wise, and

that

and

those

usually refer to objects or entities that are farther away. Here’s an example of a demonstrative pronoun used in a sentence:


The books are stacked up in the garage. Can you put



those



away?


The books

have already been mentioned, and

those

is the demonstrative pronoun that stands in to refer to them in the second sentence above. The use of

those

indicates that the books aren’t nearby—they’re out in the garage. Here’s another example:


Do you need shoes? Here…you can borrow



these.

In this sentence,

these

refers to the noun

shoes.

Using the word

these

tells readers that the shoes are nearby…maybe even on the speaker’s feet!


Indefinite pronouns are used when it isn’t necessary to identify a specific person or thing

. The indefinite pronouns are

one, other, none, some, anybody, everybody,

and

no one.

Here’s one example of an indefinite pronoun used in a sentence:


Promise you can keep a secret?


Of course. I won’t tell



anyone.

In this example, the person speaking in the second two sentences isn’t referring to any particular people who they won’t tell the secret to. They’re saying that, in general, they won’t tell

anyone

. That doesn’t specify a specific number, type, or category of people who they won’t tell the secret to, which is what makes the pronoun indefinite.

Finally,

interrogative pronouns are used in questions, and these pronouns include



who, what, which,



and



whose.


These pronouns are simply used to gather information about specific nouns—persons, places, and ideas. Let’s look at two examples of interrogative pronouns used in sentences:


Do you remember



which



glass was mine?



What



time are they arriving?

In the first glass, the speaker wants to know more about which glass belongs to whom. In the second sentence, the speaker is asking for more clarity about a specific time.


body-puzzle-pieces


Conjunctions hook phrases and clauses together so they fit like pieces of a puzzle.


#6: Conjunctions


Conjunctions are words that are used to connect words, phrases, clauses, and sentences in the English language.

This function allows conjunctions to connect actions, ideas, and thoughts as well. Conjunctions are also used to make lists within sentences. (Conjunctions are also probably the most famous part of speech, since they were immortalized in the famous

“Conjunction Junction”

song from

Schoolhouse Rock

.)

You’re probably familiar with

and, but,

and

or

as conjunctions, but let’s look into some subclasses of conjunctions so you can learn about the array of conjunctions that are out there!


Subclasses of Conjunctions, Including Examples


Coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions, and correlative conjunctions are three subclasses of conjunctions.

Each of these types of conjunctions functions in a different way in sentences!


Coordinating Conjunctions


Coordinating conjunctions are

probably the most familiar type of conjunction. These conjunctions include the words

for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

(people often recommend using the acronym FANBOYS to remember the seven coordinating conjunctions!).

Coordinating conjunctions are responsible for connecting two independent clauses in sentences, but can also be used to connect two words in a sentence. Here are two examples of coordinating conjunctions that connect two independent clauses in a sentence:

He wanted to go to the movies,


but


he couldn’t find his car keys.

They put on sunscreen,


and


they went to the beach.

Next, here are two examples of coordinating conjunctions that connect two words:

Would you like to cook


or


order in for dinner?

The storm was loud

yet

refreshing.

The two examples above show that coordinating conjunctions can connect different types of words as well. In the first example, the coordinating conjunction “or” connects two verbs; in the second example, the coordinating conjunction “yet” connects two adjectives.

But wait! Why does the first set of sentences have commas while the second set of sentences doesn’t? When using a coordinating conjunction,

put a comma before the conjunction when it’s connecting two complete sentences

. Otherwise, there’s no comma necessary.


Subordinating Conjunctions


Subordinating conjunctions are used to link an independent clause to a dependent clause in a sentence.

This type of conjunction always appears at the beginning of a dependent clause, which means that subordinating conjunctions can appear at the beginning of a sentence or in the middle of a sentence following an independent clause. (If you’re unsure about what independent and dependent clauses are, be sure to check out our guide to compound sentences.)

Here is an example of a subordinating conjunction that appears at the beginning of a sentence:



Because


we were hungry, we ordered way too much food.

Now, here’s an example of a subordinating conjunction that appears in the middle of a sentence, following an independent clause and a comma:

Rakim was scared


after


the power went out.

See? In the example above, the subordinating conjunction

after

connects the independent clause

Rakim was scared

to the dependent clause

after the power went out.

Subordinating conjunctions include (but are not limited to!) the following words:

after, as, because, before, even though, one, since, unless, until, whenever,

and

while.


Correlative Conjunctions

Finally,

correlative conjunctions are

conjunctions that come in pairs, like

both/and, either/or,

and

neither/nor.

The two correlative conjunctions that come in a pair must appear in different parts of a sentence to make sense—

they



correlate



the meaning in one part of the sentence with the meaning in another part of the sentence

. Makes sense, right?

Here are two examples of correlative conjunctions used in a sentence:

We’re


either


going to the Farmer’s Market


or


the Natural Grocer’s for our shopping today.

They’re going to have to get dog treats for


both


Piper


and


Fudge.

Other pairs of correlative conjunctions include

as many/as, not/but, not only/but also, rather/than, such/that,

and

whether/or.


body-wow-interjection


Interjections are single words that express emotions that end in an exclamation point. Cool!


#7: Interjections


Interjections are words that often appear at the beginning of sentences or between sentences to express emotions or sentiments

such as excitement, surprise, joy, disgust, anger, or even pain. Commonly used interjections include

wow!, yikes!, ouch!,

or

ugh!


One clue that an interjection is being used is when an exclamation point appears after a single word

(but interjections don’t

have

to be followed by an exclamation point). And, since interjections usually express emotion or feeling, they’re often referred to as being exclamatory. Wow!

Interjections don’t come together with other parts of speech to form bigger grammatical units, like phrases or clauses.

There also aren’t strict rules about where interjections should appear in relation to other sentences

. While it’s common for interjections to appear before sentences that describe an action or event that the interjection helps explain, interjections can appear

after

sentences that contain the action they’re describing as well.


Subclasses of Interjections, Including Examples

There are two main subclasses of interjections:

primary interjections and secondary interjections.

Let’s take a look at these two types of interjections!


Primary Interjections


Primary interjections are

single words, like

oh!, wow!,

or

ouch!

that don’t enter into the actual structure of a sentence but add to the meaning of a sentence. Here’s an example of how a primary interjection can be used before a sentence to add to the meaning of the sentence that follows it:



Ouch



!

I just burned myself on that pan!

While someone who hears,

I just burned myself on that pan

might assume that the person who said that is now in pain, the interjection

Ouch!

makes it clear that burning oneself on the pan definitely was painful.


Secondary Interjections


Secondary interjections are words that have other meanings but have evolved to be used like interjections in the English language and are often exclamatory.

Secondary interjections can be mixed with greetings, oaths, or swear words. In many cases, the use of secondary interjections negates the original meaning of the word that is being used as an interjection. Let’s look at a couple of examples of secondary interjections here:



Well


, look what the cat dragged in!



Heck,


I’d help if I could, but I’ve got to get to work.

You probably know that the words

well

and

heck

weren’t originally used as interjections in the English language.

Well

originally meant that something was done in a good or satisfactory way, or that a person was in good health. Over time and through repeated usage, it’s come to be used as a way to express emotion, such as surprise, anger, relief, or resignation, like in the example above.

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This is a handy list of common prepositional phrases.

(attanatta / Flickr)


#8: Prepositions

The last part of speech we’re going to define is the preposition.

Prepositions are words that are used to connect other words in a sentence—typically nouns and verbs—and show the relationship between those words.

Prepositions convey concepts such as comparison, position, place, direction, movement, time, possession, and how an action is completed.


Subclasses of Prepositions, Including Examples

The subclasses of prepositions are

simple prepositions, double prepositions, participle prepositions, and prepositional phrases.


Simple Prepositions


Simple prepositions appear before and between nouns, adjectives, or adverbs in sentences to convey relationships between people, living creatures, things, or places

. Here are a couple of examples of simple prepositions used in sentences:

I’ll order more ink


before


we run out.

Your phone was


beside


your wallet.

In the first example, the preposition

before

appears between the noun

ink

and the personal pronoun

we

to convey a relationship. In the second example, the preposition

beside

appears between the verb

was

and the possessive pronoun

your.

In both examples, though, the prepositions help us understand how elements in the sentence are related to one another. In the first sentence, we know that the speaker currently has ink but needs more

before

it’s gone. In the second sentence, the preposition

beside

helps us understand how the wallet and the phone are positioned relative to one another!


Double Prepositions


Double prepositions are exactly what they sound like: two prepositions joined together into one unit

to connect phrases, nouns, and pronouns with other words in a sentence. Common examples of double prepositions include

outside of, because of, according to, next to, across from,

and

on top of.

Here is an example of a double preposition in a sentence:

I thought you were sitting


across from


me.

You see?

Across

and

from

both function as prepositions individually. When combined together in a sentence, they create a double preposition. (Also note that the prepositions help us understand how two people—

you

and

I—

are positioned with one another through spacial relationship.)


Prepositional Phrases

Finally,

prepositional phrases are groups of words that include a preposition and a noun or pronoun.

Typically, the noun or pronoun that appears after the preposition in a prepositional phrase is called the

object

of the preposition. The object always appears at the end of the prepositional phrase. Additionally, prepositional phrases never include a verb or a subject. Here are two examples of prepositional phrases:

The cat sat


under the chair


.

In the example above, “under” is the preposition, and “the chair” is the noun, which functions as the object of the preposition. Here’s one more example:

We walked


through the overgrown field


.

Now, this example demonstrates one more thing you need to know about prepositional phrases:

they can include an adjective before the object.

In this example, “through” is the preposition, and “field” is the object. “Overgrown” is an adjective that modifies “the field,” and it’s quite common for adjectives to appear in prepositional phrases like the one above.

While that might sound confusing, don’t worry: the key is identifying the preposition in the first place! Once you can find the preposition, you can start looking at the words around it to see if it forms a compound preposition, a double preposition of a prepositional phrase.

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10 Question Quiz: Test Your Knowledge of Parts of Speech Definitions and Examples

Since we’ve covered a lot of material about the 8 parts of speech with examples (

a lot

of them!), we want to give you an opportunity to review and see what you’ve learned! While it might seem easier to just use a parts of speech finder instead of learning all this stuff,

our parts of speech quiz can help you continue building your knowledge of the 8 parts of speech and master each one.

Are you ready? Here we go:


1) What are the 8 parts of speech?

a) Noun, article, adverb, antecedent, verb, adjective, conjunction, interjection

b) Noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, determiner, clause, adjective, preposition

c) Noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, conjunction, interjection, preposition


2) Which parts of speech have subclasses?

a) Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs

b) Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions

c) All of them! There are many types of words within each part of speech.


3) What is the difference between common nouns and proper nouns?

a) Common nouns don’t refer to specific people, places, or entities, but proper nouns do refer to specific people, places, or entities.

b) Common nouns refer to regular, everyday people, places, or entities, but proper nouns refer to famous people, places, or entities.

c) Common nouns refer to physical entities, like people, places, and objects, but proper nouns refer to nonphysical entities, like feelings, ideas, and experiences.


4) In which of the following sentences is the emboldened word a verb?

a) He was frightened by the horror

film

.

b) He

adjusted

his expectations after the first plan fell through.

c) She walked

briskly

to get there on time.


5) Which of the following is a correct definition of adjectives, and what other part of speech do adjectives modify?

a) Adjectives are describing words, and they modify nouns and noun phrases.

b) Adjectives are describing words, and they modify verbs and adverbs.

c) Adjectives are describing words, and they modify nouns, verbs, and adverbs.


6) Which of the following describes the function of adverbs in sentences?

a) Adverbs express frequency, degree, manner, time, place, and level of certainty.

b) Adverbs express an action performed by a subject.

c) Adverbs describe nouns and noun phrases.


7) Which of the following answers contains a list of personal pronouns?

a) This, that, these, those

b) I, you, me, we, he, she, him, her, they, them

c) Who, what, which, whose


8) Where do interjections typically appear in a sentence?

a) Interjections can appear at the beginning of or in between sentences.

b) Interjections appear at the end of sentences.

c) Interjections appear in prepositional phrases.


9) Which of the following sentences contains a prepositional phrase?

a) The dog happily wagged his tail.

b) The cow jumped over the moon.

c) She glared, angry that he forgot the flowers.


10) Which of the following is an accurate definition of a “part of speech”?

a) A category of words that serve a similar grammatical purpose in sentences.

b) A category of words that are of similar length and spelling.

c) A category of words that mean the same thing.

So, how did you do?

If you got 1C, 2C, 3A, 4B, 5A, 6A, 7B, 8A, 9B, and 10A, you came out on top!

There’s a lot to remember where the parts of speech are concerned, and if you’re looking for more practice like our quiz, try looking around for parts of speech games or parts of speech worksheets online!

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What’s Next?

You might be brushing up on your grammar so you can ace the verbal portions of the SAT or ACT.

Be sure you check out our guides to the grammar you need to know before you tackle those tests!

Here’s our expert guide to the

grammar rules you need to know for the SAT

, and this article teaches you the

14 grammar rules you’ll definitely see on the ACT.

When you have a good handle on parts of speech,

it can make writing essays tons easier.

Learn how knowing parts of speech can help you get

a perfect 12 on the ACT Essay

(or an

8/8/8 on the SAT Essay

).

While we’re on the topic of grammar: keep in mind that knowing grammar rules is only part of the battle when it comes to the verbal and written portions of the SAT and ACT.

Having a good vocabulary is also important to



making the perfect score



!

Here are

262 vocabulary words you need to know

before you tackle your standardized tests.