An Introduction to ASA Format and Citation

An ASA format, also known as a manuscript format, is most commonly found in sociology. If you are a sociology student, there is a good chance that the overall guide to the ASA citation from professional essay writers will be helpful to you. Let us begin with the definition of ASA.

What Exactly Is ASA?

The ASA citation style is commonly used in the field of sociology. The abbreviation ASA stands for “American Sociological Association.” Scholars, academics, and students of sociology use the ASA format citation in their manuscripts or articles that they submit to the sociology department or the field of sociology as a whole.If the American Society of Anatomy citation standard is not followed appropriately,, the work may be discredited, or its acknowledgments may be postponed, along with the writer’s career development.

When using the ASA citation format, please pay close attention to the parts of the paper that the design affects, such as the title page, abstract, heading format, in-text citations, reference list, and its formatting specifics.

The Fundamentals of ASA Citation

When using the ASA citation format, a few general formatting requirements from the ASA Style Guide must be followed.

If you are not told otherwise, adopt the format as described below:

  • Make sure all written text is double-spaced and in font size 12.
  • Leave one ¼ inches margins on all sides.
  • A separate title page should include the paper’s title, the names of all authors, the word count, and a title footnote (which should consist of the author(s), addresses, credits, grants, and acknowledgments).
  • If necessary, an abstract should be included. It should have a title and be between 200 and 300 words long.
  • Pages, tables, figures, footnotes, and endnotes are sequentially numbered (1,2,3…) or (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3…).

ASA Title Page

When you pick up a paper, the first thing you see is the title page. It is your responsibility to make it look sharp and follow all of the rules to appear presentable and professional.

The following information is typically included on the ASA citation format title page:

  • ASA header, which also serves as the work’s full title
  • Authors’ names and institutions
  • The total number of words
  • Author’s address, or the address of someone who receives communication and feedback about the work
  • All contributors or sponsors are given credit or acknowledgment.
  • Grants/funding for research or publication

ASA Abstract

The abstract is located between the title page and the beginning of the essay on a separate page. It usually contains about 150-200 words. If an abstract page is included, it usually consists of keywords that help identify the main points of study in the essay.


Body paragraphs are organized using subheadings in the ASA citation format. They do not simply serve to name the document sections; for example, using “Introduction” in a subheading would be a poor choice.

There are three levels of subheadings. In ASA formatting, subheadings are always left-aligned and never written in bold letters. It’s worth noting that the following subheadings’ editing styles correspond to how they should appear in the text:

  • The first-level subheading is denoted by capital letters.
  • Don’t use a bold font.
  • Do not start with a heading like Introduction.


  1. Second-Level Subheading
  • Italicized
  • Title case (the first letter of each word is capitalized except for articles and prepositions)
  • Do not use bold font


  1. Third-level subheading
  • Italicized
  • The first word is capitalized only.
  • A period should come after that.
  • Should be indented at the start of the paragraph


ASA Citation Guidelines

When it comes to the writing style of the ASA, there are a few simple rules to follow:

  • Unless otherwise instructed, this type of work avoids using the first person.
  • Because the paper will be heavily referenced, it is best to avoid expressing personal opinions—unless the essay is argumentative.
  • The writing should be direct and written in an active voice. Jargon, common expressions, slang, and superlatives should be avoided at all costs.
  • Unless they show as data in tables or graphs, words like “percent” and “verses” are always spelled and not abbreviated.
  • Gendered terms are only used when necessary in the context of the analysis. Otherwise, avoid using words like “mankind” and instead use non-gendered terms like “humanity” or “the global population,” for example.
  • Another thing to be wary of is racial and ethnic stereotyping. When describing a race or ethnicity, be specific. Japanese should be used instead of Asian, and Mexican should be used instead of Latino.
  • If the text calls for the use of an acronym, include the full name of the acronym in parenthesis after the entire name. Following that, you can use the acronym: (for the first time) According to a report by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)… (Further on in the text) According to the CIA report…

ASA In-Text Citations

When and How Should You Use In-Text Citations?

When it comes to in-text citations, the ASA citation format is similar to APA and is used when presenting information from any source. The basic norm for American Sociological Association citations is that it should include the author’s last name and the material’s first published. Here are some examples of in-text citations:

  • If the author’s name appears in the sentence, include the year:
  • Example of ASA in-text citation: When Vasari (1550) studied the renaissance painters…


  • If not, insert the author’s surname between the parentheses:
  • Example of an ASA in-text citation: When Renaissance painters were studied (Vasari 1550)…


  • When citing reprinted work with multiple publication dates, list the first and then the most recent, separated by a slash.
  • Example of an ASA in-text citation: (Reed and Christgau 1978/2013).


Multiple Authors ASA Citation

The examples below show how to use ASA in-text citations for multiple authors.

  • Write both their surnames, followed by the year of publication, for two.

ASA citation example: (Bockris and Malanga 2003)


  • Include all last names in the first citation if three or more. Include the first name and ‘et al.’ in subsequent citations, as well as the year of publication.

ASA citation example: (Breton, Magritte, and Dali 1961) — first citation (Breton et al. 1961) — subsequent citations


  • If the work does not include the author’s name, provide enough information for the work to be found in the reference list.

Example of an ASA citation: (U.S. Department of Justice 1977:82)


  • When citing multiple sources, use a semicolon to separate them and arrange them sequentially.

Example of an ASA citation: (Rutt 1950; Smith 1952)

Kenway and colleagues 1934; Stewart 1981)


  • Include both years of publication when citing reprinted work that was previously published and was republished. The earliest comes first, followed by a slash and the later year.

An example of an ASA citation: (Smith and Greyjoy 1995/2019)


  • In the absence of a date, use forthcoming for unpublished work published soon. If no date can be determined, use n.d.

An example of an ASA citation: Cramer (n.d.) researched interracial relationships in the twentieth century.


Citing Quotes

Quotation marks should surround short quotations in the text. Block quotations contain more than 40 words and should be separated from the rest of the text by a single space. Omit quotation marks when using block quotes in ASA citation format. The works are cited as usual, but the page number should be included in addition to the year of publication. A semicolon separates the year from the pagination.


ASA Reference Page

The word REFERENCES should appear at the top of the ASA citation reference page. All citations are double-spaced and indented with a hanging indent. Except for prepositions, articles, and conjunctions, which should be capitalized if they appear at the start of the reference’s title or subtitle, capitalize the first letter of everything.

The references are listed alphabetically by the authors’ surnames.

  • Unless they used initials in the publication, all authors’ first and middle names are included.
  • Suppose the author repeats include their full name in all references. In that case, arrange the work from oldest to newest in chronological order.
  • If the same author appears as the first author in both a single-authored reference and a multi-authored reference, the single-authored authorities should be placed first.
  • When including multiple works by the same author(s) from the same year, include letters after the year and alphabetically list all references from one author.
  • Make sure to include all of the publications’ authors. In the REFERENCES section, you may not use et al.

Footnotes and Endnotes

Notes in the text, such as footnotes and endnotes, are useful when you need to expand on a point, add or explain information from a table, or cite materials that are only available online.

Endnotes are more likely to be used than footnotes. It is preferable to decide whether you will use endnotes or footnotes in your ASA format paper and then stick to one or the other throughout. Each entry should not be longer than 100 words. They are typically placed at the bottom of the page containing the reference.

Footnotes appear on the same page as the material that has been highlighted or expanded upon. They should be numbered using Arabic numerals in the order they appear.

Endnotes are listed after the ‘References’ section at the end of the paper.

For the ASA citation, both footnotes and endnotes are numbered. They must always be used harmoniously.